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Distinguish between the Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics approaches to the field of computer-aided study of human languages.

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List five properties of natural language which make computational processing of natural language difficult.

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Define what is a "sign" according to the technical semiotic definition

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How many distinct words are there in Hebrew? Describe a computational procedure to estimate this number. List parameters which can make the question more precise.

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The "Open Information Extraction" tool at AllenAI returns incorrect answers for this query: who governs the United States. For each of the following sentence that was matched by this query, explain what is the source of the mistake: Lexical knowledge, Syntax, Semantics. Answer: AFRICA / We Africans are happy, proud that a son of Africa governs the United States of America Answer: LAW / The House of Representatives drafts and passes laws that, when signed by the president, govern the Unites States and its citizens. Answer: THE SITE / All matters relating to the site are governed by United States Law.

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Consider the various definitions of the linguistic unit called "word": orthographic (sequence of letters separated by delimiters); semantic (an independent unit of meaning); dictionary (a unit which is listed in the lexicon of the language). For each of the following cases, indicate whether the classification of the string between brackets as a single word according to the [O]rthographic, [S]emantic [D]ictionary sense: He even [wouldn't] agree to eat bread. [It's] on the right. [Trump's] tweet triggered a sworm of protest. [Come on]! [Beer Sheva] has more fountains than Tel Aviv. [Two hundred and fifty five] students attended the event

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Define what is a language model

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What are the two probabilistic models involved in spell checking, and how are they combined?

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Write the chain-rule expression of the joint probability p(w1,...,wn)

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What is the Markov assumption applied to language modeling

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