Discuss, Learn and be Happy דיון בשאלות

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11.13 Prenatal factors can affect ___ and therefore a child’s potential intelligence. Which of the following options most accurately fits the space?

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Factors that impair brain development will necessarily also impair the child’s potential intelligence.
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11.14 Sex-role stereotypes – e.g. boys encouraged to play with toys which involve visuospatial manipulation, girls are not – are taken as evidence for which theories?

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Children, it is argued, fulfil sex-role stereotypes: boys are encouraged to play with toys which involve visuospatial manipulation; girls are not (we will come back to this in Chapter 12).
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Children, it is argued, fulfil sex-role stereotypes: boys are encouraged to play with toys which involve visuospatial manipulation; girls are not (we will come back to this in Chapter 12).

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A child who enters the fifth grade a year earlier than a child of the same age in the fourth grade has a verbal IQ that is five points higher at the end of the school year. In Norway, there are indications that adding two years beyond the seventh grade affects (improves) IQ at age 19 (Brinch and Galloway, 2011).
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11.16 Tucker-Drob et al. (2011) conducted research that suggested there may be a relationship between ___ and heritability. Which of the following options most accurately fits the space?

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Tucker-Drob et al. (2011) studied 750 twin pairs to examine the relationship between heritability and the socio-economic status (SES) of their parents. At ten months, there was little effect of SES. At two years, there was much more variation especially in twins with parents of high SES.
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11.7 Modern intelligence testing originated in ___ with the work of ___. Which of the following options most accurately fits the spaces?

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Binet’s work in France was the start of modern intelligence testing. Binet did not develop the concept of IQ (intelligence quotient). Nor did he believe that the mental age derived from the test scores expressed a simple trait called ‘intelligence’. Instead, he conceived of the overall score as the average of several different abilities.
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11.8 Tests that load heavily on crystallised intelligence do not include tests involving…

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Memory span tests are not concerned with learned behaviour. Crystallised intelligence is defined by tasks that require people to have already acquired information, such as vocabulary and semantic information, and is therefore more culture-bound.
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11.9 A review by Kuncel and Hezlett (2010) found that standardised cognitive test scores…

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A review by Kuncel and Hezlett (2010) found that standardised cognitive test scores predicted grade point averages in American graduates. They also found that standardised cognitive test scores were not good at predicting the attainment of a degree and predicted success in occupational training and overall job performance.
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11.10 If a test really measures what it purports to measure, the test is said to be…

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A valid test is one that measures what it purports to measure.
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11.11 Factor loadings…

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This is an accurate description of the function of factor loadings.
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11.12 Why might average intelligence scores be increasing (the Flynn effect)?

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All of the above have been put forward as reasons why intelligence scores are increasing. However, it is important to remember to look at evidence for both sides of an argument. You may wish to do further reading on this subject.
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